Puppet扩展篇8-Puppet dashboard的部署及测试

零基础学习Puppet自动化配置管理系列文档

Puppet Dasshboard是由支持Puppet开发的公司Puppetlabs创建的,是Ruby on Rails程序。可以作为一个ENC(外部节点分类器)以及一个报告工具,并且正在逐渐成为一个包含许多Puppet新功能的集成界面,例如审计和资源管理功能。 Puppet Dashboard是一个Ruby on Rails程序,用于显示Puppet master和agent的相关信息。它允许你查看从一个或多个Puppet master汇总的图形和报告数据。它同时从一个或者多个Puppet master上收集来自于Puppet agent的资产数据(主机的Fact和其他信息)。最后,它能作为一个ENC来配置Puppet节点,并指定这些节点上的类和参数。

1 前期准备工作

Puppet Dashboard(1.2.3)程序目前版本只能安装在Ruby 1.8.x(Dashboard还不能工作在1.9.x下或者更新的版本下),只支持MySQL作为数据库后端。

Rake version 0.8.3 or newer
MySQL database server version 5.x
Ruby-MySQL bindings version 2.7.x or 2.8.x

备注:更多详细信息请参考:http://docs.puppetlabs.com/dashboard/

2 安装相关软件包

[root@puppetserver nodes]# yum install  ruby-mysql mysql-server puppet-dashboard

3 配置Dashboard(包括与数据库的结合部分)

3.1 创建管理Dashboard的MySQL数据库账号并授权

[root@puppetserver rpms]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld restart
[root@puppetserver ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
[root@puppetserver rpms]# mysqladmin -uroot password 123.com
[root@puppetserver rpms]# mysql –p123.com
mysql> create database dashboard character set utf8;
mysql> grant all on dashboard.* to 'dashboard'@'localhost' identified by "123.com";
mysql> flush privileges;    
[root@puppetserver rpms]# mysql -udashboard -p123.com #测试账号是否创建成功
…
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql>

3.2 优化数据库配置文件my.cnf

[root@puppetserver rpms]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
# Allowing 32MB allows an occasional 17MB row with plenty of spare room
max_allowed_packet = 32M 
…
[root@puppetserver rpms]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld restart #重启MySQL生效
Stopping mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]
Starting mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]

3.3 编辑dashboard YAML配置文件(database.yml)来指定数据库

[root@puppetserver rpms]# vim /usr/share/puppet-dashboard/config/database.yml
production:
  database: dashboard
  username: dashboard
  password: 123.com
  encoding: utf8
  adapter: mysql
…

3.4 填充数据库

[root@puppetserver ~]# cd /usr/share/puppet-dashboard/
[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# rake gems:refresh_specs
[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# rake RAILS_ENV=production db:migrate #环境变量RAILS_ENV=production告诉Ruby on Rails我们工作在生产环境。每次你运行一个rake命令都需要使用合适的环境值来设置RAILS_ENV环境变量

3.5 查看是否导入成功

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# mysql -udashboard -p123.com
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 5.1.66 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> use dashboard;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A
Database changed
mysql> show tables;
+------------------------------+
| Tables_in_dashboard          |
+------------------------------+
| delayed_job_failures         |
| delayed_jobs                 |
| metrics                      |
| node_class_memberships       |
| node_classes                 |
| node_group_class_memberships |
| node_group_edges             |
| node_group_memberships       |
| node_groups                  |
| nodes                        |
| old_reports                  |
| parameters                   |
| report_logs                  |
| reports                      |
| resource_events              |
| resource_statuses            |
| schema_migrations            |
| timeline_events              |
+------------------------------+
18 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4 启动并运行Dashboard(WEBrick方式)

WEBrick有助于快速使用Dashboard,不过它不能很好地进行扩展,并且当有许多Puppet agent向Dashboard进行报告时,它的性能会非常差,因此不推荐使用。

4.1 关闭httpd服务

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd stop #之前配置过使用httpd运行puppetmaster,需要关闭
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

4.2 启动puppetmaster服务

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/puppetmaster start
Starting puppetmaster:                                     [  OK  ]

4.3 启动puppet-dashboard服务

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/puppet-dashboard start #启动dashboard    
Starting Puppet Dashboard: => Booting WEBrick
=> Rails 2.3.17 application starting on http://0.0.0.0:3000
                                                           [  OK  ]

4.4 通过浏览器访问http://192.168.100.110:3000

puppet dashboard

5 启动并运行Dashboard(Passenger方式)

5.1 使用Ruby Gem安装Passenger

[root@puppetserver etc]# yum install ruby-devel ruby-libs rubygems libcurl-devel
[root@puppetserver etc]# yum install httpd httpd-devel apr-util-devel apr-devel mod_ssl
[root@puppetserver repos]# gem install --local passenger-4.0.19.gem #自动解决依赖关系,进入gem包目录进行安装
Building native extensions.  This could take a while...
Successfully installed rake-10.0.1
Successfully installed daemon_controller-1.1.5
Successfully installed rack-1.5.2
Successfully installed passenger-4.0.19

5.2 配置虚拟主机和passenger

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/passenger.conf
LoadModule passenger_module /usr/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/passenger-4.0.19/buildout/apache2/mod_passenger.so
<IfModule mod_passenger.c>
   PassengerRoot /usr/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/passenger-4.0.19
   PassengerRuby /usr/bin/ruby
   PassengerHighPerformance on
   PassengerMaxPoolSize 12
   PassengerPoolIdleTime 1500
   PassengerStatThrottleRate 120
 # RailsAutoDetect On
</IfModule>
Listen 8141
<VirtualHost *:8141>
        DocumentRoot "/usr/share/puppet-dashboard/public/"
        <Directory "/usr/share/puppet-dashboard/public/">
                Options None
                AllowOverride AuthConfig
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
        ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/dashboard.error.log
        LogLevel warn
        CustomLog /var/log/httpd/dashboard.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

5.3 启动相关服务

[root@puppetserver ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/puppetmaster stop  #停掉puppetmaster服务
Stopping puppetmaster:                                     [  OK  ]
[root@puppetserver ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart

5.4 通过浏览器访问测试

http://192.168.100.110:8141/

puppet dashboard

6 集成Puppet Dashboard

6.1 手工导入现有的报告(方式一)

[root@puppetserver ~]# cd /usr/share/puppet-dashboard/
[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# rake RAILS_ENV=production reports:import  #导入已经存在的报告
Importing 39 reports from /var/lib/puppet/reports in the background
Importing:     100% |###################################################################################| Time: 00:00:00
39 of 39 reports queued

备注:默认节点报告会在/var/lib/puppet/reports/ 产生,如果路径发生变化,导入报告时需要在后面加上“REPORT_DIR=report路径”,reports更改路径可在puppet.conf中设置参数“reportdir = 新路径”,这种方式不够实时。

puppet dashboard

6.2 配置实施汇总puppet报告(方式二)

[root@agent1 ~]# vim /etc/puppet/puppet.conf  #配置agent节点自动发送报告
 [agent]
report = true  #从2.7.0版本开始,报告系统会默认开启,不需要配置
…
[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# vim /etc/puppet/puppet.conf
[main]
    reports = http  #定义为http报告处理器,除此之外还有store,log,tagmail,rrdgraph等报告处理器
reporturl = http://172.16.200.100:8141/reports #http报告处理器将puppet报告发送到一个HTTP URL和端口(Dashboard位置)。Puppet报告以被转储为HTTP Poort形式的YAML格式进行发送。
…
[root@puppetserver public]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart

6.3 开启后台处理报告进程

[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# rake RAILS_ENV=production jobs:work &  #运行“Delayed Job Workers”,使其在后台为我们处理报告日志
[1] 28651
[root@puppetserver puppet-dashboard]# [Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Starting job worker
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Report.create_from_yaml_file completed after 0.2674
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Report.create_from_yaml_file completed after 0.1725
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Report.create_from_yaml_file completed after 0.1345
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Report.create_from_yaml_file completed after 0.1772
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] Report.create_from_yaml_file completed after 0.1397
…
[Worker(host:puppetserver.kisspuppet.com pid:28651)] 42 jobs processed at 5.9487 j/s, 0 failed ...

6.4 修改dashboard时区

Dashboard默认时区为UTC格式,我们这里需要更改为CST(Asia/Shanghai)格式

[root@puppetserver ~]# vim /usr/share/puppet-dashboard/config/settings.yml
time_zone: 'Asia/Shanghai'
…
**备注**:设置的settings.yml会覆盖掉config/environment.rb中对应的配置项(config.time_zone = 'UTC')

6.5 显示报告

通过http://192.168.100.110:8141/ 及时查看节点更新的报告信息,可以看到两个节点agent1和agent2,默认显示时间为CST格式,除此之外还可以看到某一个节点在某一个时刻的更新报告和运行曲线图。

puppet dashboard

puppet dashboard

puppet dashboard

puppet dashboard

6.6 删除报告

删除一个前的报告

[root@dashboard puppet-dashboard]# rake RAILS_ENV=production reports:prune upto=1 unit=mon
(in /usr/share/puppet-dashboard)
Deleting reports before 2014-03-18 09:23 UTC...
Deleted 142 reports.

删除一天前的报告

[root@dashboard puppet-dashboard]# rake RAILS_ENV=production reports:prune upto=1 unit=day
(in /usr/share/puppet-dashboard)
Deleting reports before 2014-04-16 09:24 UTC...
Deleted 592 reports.

删除效果如下:

puppet dashboard

7 自定义报告

7.1 编写外部报告处理器

使用现有的被存储的报告,就是那些yaml文件,可以通过设置puppet.confreports = store进行收集。然后编写一个外部的处理器来处理这些信息,例如绘图或者将他们存储在外部数据库。这也是Puppet Dashboard中的报告输入进程的工作原理。这些外部的报告处理器可以很简单地使用Ruby进行编写,以便使用Ruby反序列化YAML文件的能力以及使用生成的对象。你可以使用任何支持导入第三方ymal数据的工具。

7.2 编写内部报告处理器

编写自定义报告处理器并将它添加到Puppet。和fact、函数、类型及提供者的插件不同,Puppet没有提供一个自动分发自定义报告的方法。

7.2.1 现有报告处理器信息

[root@puppetserver ~] # ls /usr/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.8/puppet/reports
http.rb  log.rb  rrdgraph.rb  store.rb  tagmail.rb
[root@puppetserver reports]# cat http.rb  #查看http报告处理器内容
require 'puppet'
require 'net/http'
require 'uri'
Puppet::Reports.register_report(:http) do
  desc <<-DESC
  Send report information via HTTP to the `reporturl`. Each host sends
  its report as a YAML dump and this sends this YAML to a client via HTTP POST.
  The YAML is the body of the request.
  DESC
  def process
    url = URI.parse(Puppet[:reporturl])
    req = Net::HTTP::Post.new(url.path)
    req.body = self.to_yaml
    req.content_type = "application/x-yaml"
    Net::HTTP.new(url.host, url.port).start {|http|
      response = http.request(req)
      unless response.kind_of?(Net::HTTPSuccess)
        Puppet.err "Unable to submit report to #{Puppet[:reporturl].to_s} [#{response.code}] #{response.msg}"
      end
    }
  end
end

7.2.2 自定义摘要报告处理器

7.2.2.1 进入reports目录编写自定义summary.rb报告处理器

[root@puppetserver ~]# cd /usr/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.8/puppet/reports
[root@puppetserver reports]# vim summary.rb
require 'puppet'
Puppet::Reports.register_report(:summary) do
  desc <<-DESC
  Send summary report information to the report directory. 
  DESC
  def process
    client = self.host
    summary = self.summary
    dir = File.join(Puppet[:reportdir],client)
    client = self.host
    file = "summary.txt"
    destination = File.join(dir,file)
    File.open(destination,"w") do |f|
        f.write(summary)
      end
  end
end

7.2.2.2 将报告处理器的名字加入puppet.conf中,并重新启动httpd服务

[root@puppetserver ~]# vim /etc/puppet/puppet.conf
[main]
reports = http,summary
…
[root@puppetserver ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

7.2.2.3 使用mco命令触发更新节点agent1

[root@puppetserver ~]# mco puppet -v runonce  mco facts -v --with-fact  hostname='agent1'
Discovering hosts using the mc method for 2 second(s) .... 1
 * [ ============================================================> ] 1 / 1
agent1.kisspuppet.com                      : OK
    {:summary=>      "Started a background Puppet run using the 'puppet agent --onetime --daemonize --color=false --splay --splaylimit 30' command"}
---- rpc stats ----
           Nodes: 1 / 1
     Pass / Fail: 1 / 0
      Start Time: Fri Oct 04 12:54:50 +0800 2013
  Discovery Time: 2005.27ms
      Agent Time: 1118.41ms
      Total Time: 3123.68ms

7.2.2.4 查看新生成的报告信息

[root@puppetserver ~]#  cd /var/lib/puppet/reports/agent1.kisspuppet.com/
[root@puppetserver agent1.kisspuppet.com]# cat summary.txt 
Changes:
            Total: 1
Events:
            Total: 1
          Success: 1
Resources:
      Out of sync: 1
          Changed: 1
            Total: 15
          Skipped: 6
Time:
       Filebucket: 0.00
          Package: 0.00
             File: 0.11
          Service: 0.12
   Config retrieval: 1.29
            Total: 1.52
         Last run: 1380861882
Version:
           Config: 1380861878
           Puppet: 2.7.23

在整个报告处理器中,我们定义了一个叫做process的方法来承载处理器的核心逻辑。我们从报告中提取了一些信息:使用self.host方式提取了主机名,使用summary方式提取了变更的摘要。还可以使用self.logsself.metrics方式来访问报告中的日子以及度量值。 我们同时还将报告的摘要输出了报告目录下对应的以Puppet agent主机名命名的目录中,报告目录的位置是由reportdir配置的值来指定的,默认在/var/lib/puppet/reports/目录下。

备注:更多报告处理器信息请访问

现有报告处理器https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppet/tree/master/lib/puppet/reports
报告参考 http://docs.puppetlabs.com/references/latest/report.html#http 
报告及报告系统 http://docs.puppetlabs.com/guides/reporting.html

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